• Yᴀɴɴ Bʟᴀᴋᴇ • Engineering

Biomechanical Engineering •Rᴇsᴇᴀʀᴄʜ Pᴏʀᴛғᴏʟɪᴏ•
3D-printed
organs Stent procedures Arteriosclerosis
Medical Imaging Biomaterials testing and characterization
Marine Environment Protection ⊕ Smart Device Design ⊕ Ocean Phenomena
Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Nerve Stimulation
3D-printed organs ⊕ Stent procedures
Medical Imaging ⊕ Biomaterials testing
3D-printed organs ⊕ Stent procedures
Medical Imaging ⊕ Biomaterials testing
3D-printed organs ⊕ Stent procedures
Medical Imaging ⊕ Biomaterials testing
3D-printed organs ⊕ Stent procedures
Medical Imaging ⊕ Biomaterials testing

Previous Research Projects and Publications

Brief Highlights for 12 of them below

Novel 3D-printed
artery system for stents procedures
2022

Context

The foremost cause of death worldwide continues to be Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which remain increasingly more prevalent. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of CVD, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. A study on 600 patients from 13 different hospitals in Korea (Park et al., 2020), demonstrates for about 30% of patients that - while having undergone a successful procedure - they still had major complications, needed a second procedure (e.g. due to restenosis) or died (~18%) within the following ten years.

Coronary heart disease procedures and angioplasties have had major successes in treating patients suffering from atherosclerosis. There are, however, still a considerable number for which this is not the case and many gaps in the treatments, in terms of their patient characteristics, rate of failure and reoccurrence of stenosis.


Novelty of the Project

An advanced system has been developed for improved stent designs, percutaneous coronary interventions: stent placement, positioning and deployment. The latest intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) technology (a medical imaging modality) is incorporated into a global system which 3D-prints the patient's coronary artery subject to atherosclerosis. Here we bring to clinicians the most suited tool to test and simulate the surgery procedures and ensure that the stent dimensions are optimized. Compared to previous systems, this one integrates modern technologies and reduces the risks of complications and additional procedures.

The system is expected to provide less stent complications based on the current meta-analysis and statistics. It uses the latest innovation in terms of intravascular imaging. No other systems currently developed focuses exclusively on OCT. Most of them use CT or Angiography which present ionising radiation risks. It is therefore a safer solution with lower risks. The system is also the first 3D-printing system combining two materials for improved biomimetics. The cost analysis in the reports highlight how these are lower than equivalent alternatives. All the technologies selected are outstandingly innovative, the most recent and have not yet been combined, improved and incorporated in a system aimed towards stent placement and PCI.


⚊⚊✎⚊⚊

Yann Blake¹, Anshul Bakhade, Higgins Mohan and Zeena Wang
¹ Primary Researcher and Author

Comparitive overview: existing solutions vs. novel system (in red).
Simplified overview of the medical device processes

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for measuring mechanical properties, non-destructively
2022

Context

Since the discovery of the X-ray in 1895, scientists have been exploring the potentials of medical imaging techniques. In recent years medical imaging applications have increasingly diversify with the emergence of elastography based on ultra-sound imaging (1991, J. Ophir et al.). Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is another fundamental medical imaging modality and one of the latest having been discovered and developed. OCT is a non‐invasive, three‐dimensional image technique with micrometer resolution that is used to evaluate the health of different tissues, for example. Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) is a relatively new technique that uses OCT to quantify the mechanical properties of tissues and biomaterials. This can be achieved by embedding a material of interest within a softer material and apply a strain across both ends.


Novelty of the Research

This research project included the design, construct and evaluation of an OCE system based upon an existing Spectral-Domaine OCT device OQ LabScope manufactured by Lumedica– one of the most inexpensive and widely available, yet reliable and accurate OCT systems on the market. This project was an extension of the work of work of Yang et al. in this field. The designed OCE system and its associated models (e.g. derived- Hertz Contact theory) are used to examine the mechanical properties of various hydrogel-based biomaterials. These hydrogel samples have differing stiffness or composition (i.e. type) and are tested within the same conditions and with a comparison, verification and validation protocol. The measured and computed mechanical properties (from the recorded images) are derived into several models to determine more characteristics of the biomaterials e.g. viscoelasticity. Hydrogels are three-dimensionally cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers with the capacity of imbibing various large amounts of water or biological fluids. These biomaterials have been of great interest to scientists and engineers given their extended biocompatible potential, their flexibility, versatility, stimuli-responsiveness, soft structure and the fast-growing number of their applications.

Mechanical testing of hydrogels present several benefits. First, the numerous applications of hydrogels in the field of medicine and bioengineering requires to characterize their properties to better suit the needs of a patient. Secondly, hydrogels exhibit very similar characteristics and behaviours to those of natural tissues. The demonstration of an accurate elastography system for hydrogels make it also suitable for many other biological tissues, for cultured cells or biomaterials to be tested in a non-destructive manner.


⚊⚊✎⚊⚊

Yann Blake
Supervisor: Prof. Ahearne

Overview of the research project stages
Laboratory Facilities
(Parsons Building, Trinity College Dublin)
The Novelty of this project and its contribution to the field’s state-of-the-art include:

►its ability to accurately and efficiently test a biomimetic material in a non-destructive manner ; ►the set-up with use of a novel test rig adapted for loading and imaging - and tailored to this Lumedica system ; ►the validation and demonstration of the accuracy of the Yang et al.’s derived-Hertz-contact theory model for OCT-based elastography ; ►the bridging of several isolated pieces of research in the biomechanics field ; ►the evidence of an inexpensive and accessible (ease-of use and purchase) OCT/OCE system while achieving great precision and reliability, making it ideal for a wider implementation within healthcare or research facilities worldwide ; ►the technologies used are non-invasive and integrate visible light radiations only ; ►use for the effect of prior long-term recellularization ; ►strengthens a very new field which includes cell cultures applications where there is a need for efficient, accurate and non-destructive test and monitoring ; ►defines the boundaries of the system (max. stiffness, min. deformation measured accurately, protocols requirements, artefacts tolerance threshold, etc.).

Potential applications for OCE include breast cancer detection, monitoring tissue engineered constructs in real time and studying cell mechanobiology

Glan Net

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

Play Video

VNS Stimualting

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

Print Design

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

Social robot to assist healthcare and retirement facilities

Stevie is

Continuous Core Temperature
Monitoring in ICU

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

Stents

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

click on images below to zoom

Information Systems for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

Yann Blake
Supervisor: Prof. Diana Wilson

Capsaicin

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet

xx

Huawei SmartSail

Bone

Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet